Education Before Graduation


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<June 2019>
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Problem Based Education

Along with the rapid development and increase of knowledge in the medical field, new concepts have also entered to medical education. The issues such as access to information, interpretation, problem solving, achievement of results and constructive evaluation of the results encountered in all areas of life, have also risen in the medical education.For the first time in 1976, in Canada McMaster University Problem-Based Learning concept is used by Howard Barrows (PBL), has been one of the most important training methods of the last century as an educational philosophy for health and many other areas (engineering, law, architecture, language training, etc.).

In PBL, derived from a problem encountered, defining the problem and then the basic information needed in solving the problem by making the learning objectives have been actively investigated by the learner. This system is also called "interactive training" or "active learning" because the learners switch role from passive and taught location toactively researching and learning position and they share the information they have reached / acquired / internalized.

Training method has become the main components of contemporary medical education with a model developed in 1986 by Dr. Harden from the University of Dundee.This model is based on the six training strategies: student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based selective learning and systematic. PBL thus, unlike the traditional medical education has been one of the most important stages of changing medical education.PBL is currently being applied in a variety of medical faculties in the world. Some of these are listed below.

Maastricht University
Dundee University
California University
Toronto University
Linkoping University
Western Australia University
Mc Master University
Pittsburg University
Mercer University
Harvard University
New Mexico University
Dartmouth University
Liverpool University etc.

World Medical Association has announced that the purpose of medical education is to nurture talented doctors. PBL is a suitable training method for this purpose.

Table: Comparison of the medical education system model according to the New Harden Model (right column) and old model (left column).

 Student centered

 Teacher centered

 Problem based

 Information based


 Discipline based 


 Hospital based

selective learning

 Standart Program


 Master-apprentice relationship

In the education system which is implemented byPamukkale University Faculty of Medicine, with "PBL Sessions"itis intended the students to gain bio-psycho-social approach. For the first three years these training events can be stated as, preclinic and Occupational Skills Log, Laboratory Applications, Field Studies, Occupational Values ​​and Ethics, Presentations, Formative Assessment (Large Group Discussion), Independent Learning Hours, Terminology and Special Study Module. In the first three years, the education is held by the activities which are placed in a certain systematicbutnot fixed modules. Modules usually take two weeks.Examples of two weeks program modules are given below.Within this program, "Common compulsory courses" are also included.At the end of module Final Evaluation Examination (FEE) is held.

PBL sessions are the most important component of the educational system.In the PBL sessions in small groups with the participation of the tutors students come face to face with a scenario patient may encounter in real life.In each PBL session, students learn new information and concepts, use information, understanding better by realizing the basic and clinical medical information and they develop analysis, synthesis and problem-solving skills. Thus, while the students are learning what they need, they investigate what and where to learn and they discuss the issue within the group and internalize it. In other words, in the PBL sessions the students learn how to learn. PBL sessions help the students addnew information on the previous knowledge and use their knowledge on decision-making, and problem solving activities by providing communication, leadership, sharing knowledge, awareness of oneself, motivation to learn and evaluating their own knowledge and teamwork. Investigation revealed by the students of the learning objectives in PBL sessions are mandatory to student-centered education and is an alternative to rote training.The investigation of the target in the process of training activities to support student learning objectives of the module are introduced into a suitable sorting and helps students learn the target and implementation.

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